3/27/2020 0 Comments
DNR Surgical Patients - Essay Example It also discusses the legal and moral implications of anesthesia practice and how these implications eventually affect the decision-making process of both the patient and the attending medical health care team. I can apply the information in this article to my clinical practice because I can use the results revealed by this study in considering options for DNR patients. In my anesthesia practice, I can be more prudent of patientâ€™s needs and of their choices. I would be more interested in explaining to them the different ways in which a DNR order may be carried out. I can apply this information into my practice by becoming more conscious of the options that I explain to patients. Each choice may be different for every patient, and as such, I should treat them as individuals. Even when patients share similar ailments, they may not always make the same choices. Therefore, it is important, as a medical health professional, for me to treat each patient based on his individual circumstances and on the individual choices he is making. I can also apply the information from this article to my clinical practice in the sense that I now have the opportunity to become more patient-centered and more evidence-based. In the current medical practice where there are so many available treatments for patients, this article will help emphasize rational and client-centered approaches to treatment. I have learned from this article that it is important for me to note that policies which automatically suspend DNR orders may not always adequately address a patientâ€™s right to self-determination. In these instances, therefore, it is important for me to encourage preoperative review with my patients and with the other members of the health care team. By reviewing the options with the patients, it may be possible for these patients to opt for medical interventions which will make their lives comfortable. I have also learned that my viewpoint as a medical health
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Network Media Information Technology Essay Im a student of IADCS accessed by NCC Education at Myanma Computer Company in Yangon. Ive to study four core subjects and four elective subjects. In Enterprise Networking Assignment, we have to do handing over and sit exam to achieve that diploma. This assignment is intended to develop some of the heart features of the network and communication to point up the theoretical and practical understanding of the tools and techniques connected with enterprise networking. The tasks in this assignment can be more explored in categorize to acquire advantage of the additional sophisticated features of the network such as telephone system, two-way communications and network topologies. Acknowledgement Firstly I would similar to be grateful NCC Education for improving computer knowledge by preparing this assignment. Thanks also to my lecturer, U AUNG ZAW MYINT for his excellent management in a practiced effect. And also, special gratitude to my colleagues with their support made this assignment successfully. Finally, I wish to widen a deepest thanks to my parents who confident me to come to an end this assignment effectively. Task 1 How the topologies oerate In networking terms, topology refers not only to the physical layout of its computers, cables, and other resources, but also to how those components communicate with each other. A networks topology has a significant effect on its performance and growth potential. There is another terms that fit into topology scheme are Ethernet and token ring, these are sometimes referred to as LAN topologies. The media access method Ethernet uses in a shared-media environment (a logical bus). Token ring networks have a physical star topology but function as a logical ring. All network designs today are based on three simple physical topologies: bus, ring, and star. Bus network topology consists of a series of computers connected along a single cable segment. If this cable fails, the entire network crashes. Fig 1-1 Bus Network Topology Computers connected to form a loop create a ring topology network. A typical single-ring network fail if one computer in the ring fails, but a dual-ring network can operate around any such failure. Fig 1-2 Ring Network Topology A star network topology describes computers connected by cable segments to a central connection point (hub). Star topology doesnt specify how signals should travel from computer to computer, only that cables connect computers to a central device. Fig 1-3 Star Network topology Advantages and disadvantages of network media Media Types Advantages Disadvantages UTP (Twisted pair cable) least expensive, easy to install, widely available and widely use can over only a limited distance, susceptible to interference STP (Twisted pair cable) reduced crosstalk, limit the effects of external interference more resistant to EMI than Thinnet or UTP more expensive than UTP difficult to work with, can over only a limited distance, more fragile than UTP cables Coaxial Cable less susceptible to EMI interference than other types of copper media Less bandwidth than fiber Installation expenses are lofty, Difficult to work with, is not supported for some network standards (eg. Token ring), more susceptible than fiber optic cable Fiber- optic cable is not susceptible to EMI resistant to interference as any media can get, can transmit through longer distance The most expensive form of cabling, expensive to install , difficult to terminate Recommendation I want to recommend setting star network and twisted pair cable (UTP) for the following reasons. Star topology is the relative ease of troubleshooting because all computers connect at a central location; an administrator can quickly and easily isolate network problems involving a single device or cable segment without affecting other devices. Twisted pair (UTP) cable is the common use for star network topology. In UTP cabling, category 5 (cat5), category 5e (cat 5e), category 6 (cat 6) are by far the most popular types. UTP is particularly prone to crosstalk. It is used for telephone system and two-way communication. UTP is common in most office buildings and other work environments. Task 2 Task-2 Internet services The internet services provide for Communication, Information and File transmission all around the world. The following appliance are the most commonly use for internet services. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) -responsible for transferring e-mail. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) -use for file transfer and manipulation services Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) -use to transfer Web pages from a Web server to a Web browser. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)- use to access linked documents on the World Wide Web that are located on a secure server. Post Office Protocol (POP3): specifies how e-mail clients can identify itself to the server and request that mail messages be made available to the user. Connection speeds The connection speeds that are suitable for the above services are as follows: Services Speeds Information 100 Kbps Communication 28 Kbps(mail) Video conferencing just 384 Kbps File transmission over 1 Mbps Examples of ISP in our country Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (http://www.mpt.net.mm/mpt/index.htm) Myanmar Post and Telecommunication offers a variety of access services from dial-up connection (low speed, low cost) like Internet Dial-Up Account or Pre-paid Access Kit to different kind of Broadband Services (high speed, additional voice options) like Broadband Wireless, ADSL or IPSTAR. Depending on your locality, your current telephone line connection, your budget and your requirements, Myanmar Post and Telecommunication can advice you which Access Service will suit you best. To adapt the Access Services even more to your personal wishes you can choose out of different user plans for each service. Recommendation By any way, we have to choose Myanmar Post and Telecommunication because it is not only the only ISP in Myanmar but also a Government Association. It aims that To rapidly build up the market by taking advantage of high capacity satellite and broadband wireless technologies To ensure network flexibility supporting multiple service type ranging from basic voice to advanced multimedia streaming. To provide complete communication service to anybody, anywhere in Myanmar by achieving 100% network converge nationwide. Task 3 Task- 3 Method for Two-way voice communication A full-duplex is data transmission in both two directions at the same time. Land-line is a good example of full-duplex communication in a telephone networks since they allow both directions of callers to speak and be heard in the same time. Examples: Telephone, Mobile Phone, etc. A half-duplex system supports the communication for two directions, but only one caller can speak at a time. If one caller transmits the signal, another caller must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting. Antennas are of one of the type of trans-receiver that transmit and receive. Examples: walkie-talkie style two-way radio. DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) DECT is not only used mostly in house/miniature office systems but also accessible in various PBX systems used medium and enterprise businesses. This system can be utilized for cordless phones. Voice applications are usually common nowadays. Data applications be, but have been covered by Wi-Fi. 3G cellular (WCDMA) is absolutely full with both DECT and Wi-Fi for not only voice but also data. DECT operates on different frequencies: 1880MHz, 1900MHz, 1910MHz, 1920MHz, and 1930MHz. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) GSM has been continually improved to offer platforms that distribute broad range of mobile services. Where the industry started voice calling, there is a powerful platform able to mobile broadband and multimedia services. Its system is now utilized for 219 countries and more than three billion people are using it. GSM is the industry standard for mobile voice and data. GSM is one of the cellular technologies that used to transmit the signal and data services. GSM activates on four different frequencies; 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900MHzs. This phone system uses transmission of digital and there is a maximum power output of 2W. Legal Requirements In our country, MPT (Myanmar Post and Telecommunication) supports mobile communications plan and agree to DECT (Digital Enhance Cordless Telecommunication) technology. Allocation of frequencies for two-way voice communication In the radio-telephone system, there was one central antenna tower per city, and perhaps 25 channels existing on that tower. This central antenna meant that the phone needed a powerful transmitter big enough to transmit 40 or 50 miles (about 70 km). It means that not many people will use radio telephones there just were not enough channels. The brilliance of the cellular system is the division of a city into small cells. This allows extensive frequency reuse across a city, so that millions of people can use cell phones simultaneously. There are different frequencies operate with the Federal Communication Commission use in DECT and cordless phones. 43-50MHz (base: 43.72-46.97MHz, Handset: 48.76-49.99MHz allocated in 1986 fir 10 channels, and later 25 channels, FM system) 1.7MHz (1.64MHz up to 5 channels, AM system) 900MHz (902-928 MHz, allocated in 1990) 1920-1930MHz (DECT Cordless Phone) 1.9 GHz (DECT Phone Standard) 5.8Â GHz (allocated in 2003 due to crowding on the 2.4Â GHz band). 2.4GHz (recently MPT allow) Licensing Requirements for two-way voice communication As Newtown Fire Department is one of the Government Association, it will not need licenses for communication. In our nation, Myanmar, the national radio communications controller Ministry of Defense control the reunion of radio frequencies. Radio frequency licenses are not usually issued free of charge and the cost of the license can be different greatly depending on country and type of usage. Operating within FCC rules and conventions is the liability of the actual end user. The FCC can fine organization up to $10,000 per day for failure to comply with the rules and conventions! Licensing is an essential piece of the conundrum, and as vital as any other detail when renting 2-way radios. operate on channels with a bandwidth of 12.5 KHz or less (narrowband) disappointment to comply 1,2031 deadline may result in annulment of license must be capable of operating in 6.25 KHz mode activate on 25 KHz channels Costs of setting up and operating system Handsets Type of Description Costs KIRK 7010 Handset Includes battery, excludes charger and power supply Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 250,00 KIRK 2010 Handset, EU Version Includes battery, charger, power supply, belt clip and belt clip connector Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 92,00 KIRK 4040 Handset Includes battery, excludes charger and power supply Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 274,00 Handset accessories Power Supplies Type of Description Costs Power Supply EU for KIRK 5020, 5040, 6020, 6040, 7010, 7020, 7040 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 15,00 Power Supply EU for KIRK 4020, 4040, 4080 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 10,00 Handset accessories USB Cables Type of Description Costs USB Cable for KIRK 5020, 5040, 6020, 6040, 7010, 7020, 7040 handset chargers Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 15,00 Handset accessories Chargers Type of Description Costs Charger for KIRK 4020, 4040 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 15,00 Charger for KIRK 4080 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 31,00 Charger for KIRK 5020, 5040 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 15,00 Handset accessories Safety Lines Connectors Type of Description Costs Safety Line with Connector for KIRK 4020, 4040, 4080 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 15,00 Safety Line Connector for KIRK 4020, 4040, 4080 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 2,00Licensing Type of Description Costs KWS600v3 Multi Cell License Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 206,00 KWS6000 User License, up to 30 users Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 0,00 KWS6000 User License, up to 150 users Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 736,00 KWS6000 User License, up to 500 users Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 1.656,00 Services Type of Description Costs Premier Service, One Year, KIRK 2010, 4020, 4040, 5020,5040 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 18,00 Premier Service, Three Years, KIRK 2010, 4020, 4040, 5020, 5040 handsets Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 42,00 Premier Service, One Year, KIRK 4080 handset Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 48,00 Premier Service, Three Years, KIRK 4080 handset Ã¢â€šÂ¬ 116,00 Limitation of each method Limitations of DECT By using large varies of base stations to support building, it communicate with public telecoms network. 32 Kbit/s of net bit rate, that low for data communication. With good range (up to 200 meter insides and 6 kilometre spending directional antenna outsides, data rates of approximately 500 Kbit/s. DECT emerged one time to be a better unusual to Wi-Fi. DECT activates in 1880-1900Â MHz band and defines 10 channels. Each base station framework offers 12 duplex communication channels with one time fit occupying any of channels. Interference-free wireless operation to approximately 100 meters outdoors. Operates clearly in common crowded domestic radio traffic situations. For example, generally resistant to intervention from Wi-Fi systems or video dispatchers, Bluetooth equipment, baby monitors and other wireless devices. Limitations of GSM Data transfer rates will reach up to 171 kbps with General Packet Radio Service which not only splits the mobile call into packets but also allows each phone to use several channels. Technical limitations force a set of maximum cell site range of 35 km of GSM Data speeds up to 9.6 Kbit/s are available. Wavelength: 10 Meter and above, frequency range: 890-915MHz (mobile transmit) and 935-960MHz (base transmit). External Interference: There is another transmitter outside the network such as TV transmission, Railway Station frequency, and microwave links. Recommendation I want to recommend setting DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) for two-way voice communication for the following effects: Several handsets can be use in each base station and each phone line socket. This let several cordless telephones to put in the region of house, all in action with the same telephone jack. There are a battery charger stations in the add handsets instead of a base station. The extra handsets do not need extra telephone sockets or extra transceivers. Capability to make internal (intercom) calls between handsets. Broaden series talk-time, sometimes available to 24 hours. Matrimonial cordless telephone, employing a solo base station to attach one or more handsets to the civic telecoms net, which is now accessible. Civic access, employing large numbers of base stations to offer elevate ability construction or inner-city area treatment as part of civic telecoms net. Unlike the GSMÂ standards, does not identify any internal facets of the preset network itself. Connectivity to the preset network which might be of a lot of separate types is made through a base station to come to an end the radio link, and a gateway to attach calls to the preset network. Task 4 Task-4 Telephone System available in our country Telephone system is one of the important parts of requirements for Fire Department. Satellite phone are required for a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or war and then line phone and PBX system are needed. For this department, four line phones are needed at least and four satellite phones for Chief Fire Officer and three watch officer. For each firefighter, the extensions of line cordless phones are required to call form the center via two way voice communication. Line Phone A telephone line is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. These refers to the physical wire or other signaling medium connecting the users telephone apparatus to the telecommunications network, and usually also implies a single telephone number for billing purposes reserved for that user. There must be wires to connect with line phone. These wires connect with Local exchange via trunk lines. These wires were generally copper, although aluminum has also been used, and were carried in balanced pairs separated by about 25 cm (10) on poles above the ground, and later as twisted pair cables. Nowadays, modern lines may run underground, and may carry analog or digital signals to the exchange, or may have a device that converts the analog signal to digital for transmission on a carrier system. Moreover there are connecting with jacks RJ11 jack for the departments and homes. Private branch exchange (PBX) system PBX is also an exchange system for telephone. This exchange will serves for Fire Department to communicate easily and cheaply within the Department. It makes connections among the internal phones and then connects them to PSTN (public switched telephone network) by using trunk lines because there is incorporation with phones, fax machines, modems, and more. The extension is used to communicate with each other. The PBXs advantage was cheap for internal phone calls Now PBX became popularity and it started the services such as hunt groups, call forwarding, and extension dialing etc. The advantages when using the VOIP PBX system: Free internal calls Allow virtual incoming numbers to breaking long distance barriers and virtual call centers on anywhere. Easy and quick implementation within the existing PBX infrastructure can be gained with inexpensive Analogue Telephony Adapters that will convert signals from your existing mostly analogue phone lines into VoIP extension. Disadvantages: Dependent on internet connection damageable in the case of power outages for emergency calls, the system cannot be used a) The main equipment that are needed for Fire Department The system components for PBX station are the following. Cabinets, vaults, closets Another housings Wires for interconnection The PBXs switching network. Microcomputer that use for data processing and control. Many cards such as Logic, switching and control, power and Related equipments for PBX operation. Phone Handsets and stations called lines. Telco trunks to communicate public phone network at the outside. The operator is allowed by switchboard to control incoming call. For electricity, High performance UPS (Uninterruptible power supply) b) The features of PBX system The following are main features in PBX system. To dial other extensions To dial outside lines To make an enquiry call to another extension whist connected to an external call To transfer the external call to the extension where an enquiry call had just been made c) Cost of equipments and installation Equipments Costs Installation Costs For each Line Phones, Fire Department will pay $1,600 and PXB installation is $ 2,000. The services charges are estimating $ 800. So totally amount, four line phones and PBX station and services charges are almost $ 9,200. d) Costs of Operating for monthly No. Type of Description Prices 1 2 3 4 Phone Bill for four lines and extensions monthly PBX Operator Salary Bill services for phone company PBX equipment maintenance services $ 350 $ 200 $ 25 $ 75 Total Amount $ 650 Recommendation For Fire Department, telephone system is one of the important parts of requirements. Line phone and PBX system are needed. And then, satellite phone are required for a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or war. For this department, four line phones are needed at least and four satellite phones for Chief Fire Officer and three watch officer. For each firefighter, the extensions of line cordless phones are required to call form the center via two way voice communication. Task 5 Task-5 If the Newtown has no electrical power or fixed telephone lines being broken, there should be an emergency using of appliance. We can use not only mobiles, walkie-talkies, and satellite phones but also generators which has the voltage of over 6600kva. Satellite Communication Satellite communication can be extremely useful for the users who are situated in vastly remote areas, and cannot access a broadband connection. Satellite receivers on the ground consist of satellite telephones, mobile reception, direct-to-home (DTH) satellite equipment, equipment in aircraft and handheld devices. Two-way voice communications are available. Data rates: 64 Kbit/s. The satellites provide a relay link to the home land earth station from the mobile terminal. Mobiles communications (GSM) Two-way voice communications are available. Can transmit 10 meter and above. Frequency range: 890-915MHz (mobile transmit) and 935-960MHz (base transmit). It is ideal for emergency services and all kinds of personal communications. Walkie-talkies Two-way voice communications are available. Hand-held transceivers can use to communicate between each other, or to vehicle-mounted or support stations. Maximum range is around 2 miles (3kilometers). Frequency range: 49 MHz band (shared with cordless phones, baby monitors, and similar devices) as well as the 900 MHz band.. Task 6 Task-6 Report for Fire Department To Mr. STER BERD November 14, 2010 (Chief Officer, Fire Department) Newtown, Green Road, No. 1111 B. From Ms. KHIN SANDAR PHYO KHINE (Network Engineer) Network Department, Red Links Company Pyay Road Report Title : Recommendation from the view of network engineers for Fire Department The Fire Department has been restructured and is opening a new headquarters building in the Newtown. I have to demonstrate an understanding of the network requirements for a new headquarters including a computer network, telephone system and two-way voice communications with staff on call in fire engines and fire department cars. Firstly, I think star topology is suitable for network design. Because star topology can be management easily and locate problem easily and then it is more expand than Bus and Ring topology. Moreover, in my opinion, I think UTP is more able to use for star topology. Due to cheap, easy installation and widely available and widely use. Secondly, I suggested about the internet connection requirements for the Fire Department. Our age became the age of internet. For Fire Department, it is needed to know the information of fire and to be contact easily. Therefore, I described Internet services, required connection speed and Internet services providers (ISPs) and its prices for requirements. And I said the methods could implement for two way voice communication. There are two kinds of it such as full duplex and half duplex. I had estimated of cost for setting up and operation system including licensing costs and equipment costs. I suggested the limitation of each system. Moreover, I explain the telephone systems available in our country for single-site organization like Fire Department. In the section, I explain the line phone, PBX for extension and satellite phone. The main equipments, features, costs and costs operation the system are explained. In this section, if there is an event of a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or war, I suggested how can work the operation of Newtown having no electrical power and fixed telephone lines being broken. Sincerely, KHIN SANDAR PHYO KHINE KHIN SANDAR PHYO KHINE (Network Engineer)
12/12/2019 0 Comments
Cloud Technology and Virtualization - Assignment Example
In the business world, cloud computing has initiated to gain a huge mass appeals as it enables secure sharing and processing of computer resources over virtual networks. Corporate Data Centres operates through the internet for real time sharing of information and application among all the nodes of the business placed at different location all over the word.
Nowadays the cloud based computer services became so much distributive in nature that many organizations are finding difficulties in using the applications and the technological infrastructure components without it.
Instead of using the pre-cloud and traditional practices, the cloud network enabled huge reduction in capital cost and much more efficiency in flexibility of the business. The cloud technologies have huge impact over the corporate data centres.
The Research manager of Global Cloud Computing, Agatha Poon said that the backup and recovery plan for the pre-cloud environment was not at the top of the priority list and that resulted in huge amount of cost utilization for management of those resources.
Poon added that with the help of â€˜cloud awareâ€™ hardware deployment of the energy can be managed with much less cost and the organization can have quicker service solutions and energy consumption can be as per their demand. The elasticity of the cloud services enabled much higher utilization of the server.
Moreover, there are provision that the companies can make zero investments for storage and server services. The overall efficiency of the organization can be increased with collaborate working in a cloud services.
Cloud computing also resulted as an added benefit for the community of application development. It provided freedom maintain hardware systems. The cloud developers also say that it is perceived as a large cost saving application.
Another major component of the cloud computing system is the Data Security. According to the experts cloud computing provides a stronger
The Complete Persepolis and The Sand Child - Essay Example
In comparison to the first book of Tahar Ben Jellounâ€™s trilogy, The Sand Child, it talks about the story of a young girl, Zahra, who is raised as a man, Ahmed. As her fatherâ€™s eagerness to have a son as his heir arises, it has been decided that the 8th kid will be a son. Zahraâ€™s identity crisis emerges since her early years when the natural emotions of a girl come into surface. As she conceals her true identity in accordance to her fatherâ€™s image, a tyrant figure, she becomes distorted as she realizes and enjoys the advantages of being a man but at the same time empathizes with the societyâ€™s cruelty to women â€“ her true identity. This paper compares and contrasts the most important theme in the two novels â€“ identity. In Search of Identity Marjane, being a daughter to liberal parents, grows up as someone who thinks outside the box. In the early part of the first book, The Story of a Childhood, she has conversations with an imaginary friend that looks like God and tells him that she would be the â€˜last prophet.â€ She announces one day in school that she would be it but all laugh at her and her parents have been Last Name 3 summoned to discuss the incident. Her parents instantly defend her to her teachers. In this scene, it will be noticed that Marjaneâ€™s parents do not succumb to the Islamic doctrine, which gives a good background on Marjaneâ€™s character and defines their family as modern. ...
As a result, she rebels on the deeply-rooted Islamic society and professes herself of being different. It is explained that she wears her veil sideways with her sneakers on, giving a punk image, which makes the Guardians of the Revolution question her. â€œThe reason for my shame and for the Revolution is the same: the difference between social classes. (Persepolis, 33) In this quote, Marjane rebels on the idealism of her parentâ€™s political stance and the reality of their social class. She realizes the class divisions at a very early age when she discovers that Mehri, her maid, cannot be with the man she in in love with due to their class difference. She feels a great deal of disagreement in herself from this fact, which affects makes her identity revolt from the class conflicts. Marjaneâ€™s life is a study of inconsistencies and contradictions. She is torn between her â€œavant gardeâ€ lifestyle and her familyâ€™s loyalty to their motherland and everything it entails. Her parents have been fighting for the poor for the longest time and yet they also have been holding on to their class distinction. She strongly defines herself as someone born in a religious heritage yet her family is secular. These contradictions during her coming of age make her feel a sense of disenfranchisement from the only land she knows. As the story progresses, Marjane finds her identity in the midst of all political chaos. As she continuously enjoys the privileges of her Last Name 4 familyâ€™s she finds herself in rebellion towards those fanatics of the current Shah regime. She hits her principal for trying to take her jewelry from her and proclaims the truth behind the lies her professor is professing to her
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